Muddy Archaeologist

Sign up

for the Free

Muddy Archaeologist email Newsletter

for the latest news and events


I promise never to pass your details to any third party

without your specific prior consent



Ancient History

Latin Classes





Illustrated Talks




For Schools





Other News


Contact Me










Gillian Hovell

is a


Accredited Lecturer


Member of

The Society of Authors


Copyright © Gillian Hovell



‘The Muddy Archaeologist’

is an identifying title

for Gillian Hovell,

independent freelance

Writer & Speaker,

historian and archaeologist


‘Visiting the Past Tours’

is the trading name of

Visiting the Past Ltd

 Registered Address:

212 Woodfield Rd


North Yorkshire

HG1 4JF  

Company No: 08315220

In association with


With thanks to

Bringing Colour, Depth and Meaning to Life today

by Digging Deep into History


“The Muddy Archaeologist is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to [The Muddy Archaeologist (].”


The MuddyArchaeologist’s Blog

Contact Me

I shall ALWAYS reply.  






Talk/Event Managers



Ancient History




Tour/Cruise Organisers







Go on and explore


Special Pages for

The Muddy Archaeologist’s

Classical Civilisations Resources

The Romans

For those who missed us (or for those who would like a reminder brief outline of what we did in our ‘Meet the Authors’ course this session), here’s a Catch-Up for this session.



Today’s session looked at Drama, ‘an ever-changing genre’, beginning with the Greek tragedies of Aeschylus (who wrote religious dramas, aiming to make sense of a changing world), Sophocles (who wrote of what men and women should and could be) and Euripides (who wrote about the inner drives of men and women).  



A closer look at Aeschylus’ Oresteia trilogy revealed its many themes including the inevitability of fate, the cycle of murder leading to vengeance and evils passed on through the cursed generations.  But this is tied in with Athens’ new democracy and the attempt to find a new way to break that cycle by public judgement and punishment instead of individuals being duty-bound to avenge family griefs.   Aeschylus’ Oresteia trilogy (Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers and the Eumenides) are some of the most powerful drama ever written.




Similarly, Euripides explored whether there was a place for irrational frenzy of the Dionysian worship in an ordered civil state?  These were the topics on the minds of the Greeks who were finding a new way of life after they defeated the Persians and revelled in their new democracy and freedom of expression.   







Plato the philosopher disliked ‘poets’ who encouraged dodgy behaviour and wanted them banned from his ideal Utopia.  








Aristotle, however, saw drama as a catharsis, cleansing and healing our troubled minds and emotions.







As life changed under the power of Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great’s Empire, tragedy’s themes became irrelevant.  Tragedy remained a ‘classic’ to be studied though.  Comedy took its place in a Hellenistic world where everyone needed a reason to laugh.  Aristophanes had led the way in Old Comedy with his fantastical and scurrilous tales.  When democracy gave way to the powerful few, critical, farcical, obscene comedy became a risky profession and comic writers including Aristophanes adapted to a Middle Comedy that ridiculed ordinary people and avoided open criticism of politicians.  It became more character-led, filled with ‘ordinary’ imaginary people. 





This New Comedy was dominated by Menander who really fleshed out the stock characters (clever, crafty slave, grumpy old men, love-sick youths, etc).  





Rome was introduced to Greek drama in 240 BC by captured Livius Andronicus.  Comedies were presented in Latin (fabulae palliatae), then given Roman scenes and clothes (fabulae togatae and fabulae praetextae).  


Plautus and Terence were the greatest Roman comedy writers.  But comedy became a conventional art form, set in its ways, and it ceased to evolve or even be performed.  



However, scholars continued Lit.Crit. exercises on them, and to use drama to teach student orators etc.  Gladiator games etc were much more popular than drama with the masses.




Ancient tragedy and comedy alike influenced Shakespeare hugely.



Classical Literature

Epic Poetry:  Homer & Hesiod     Drama      Philosophy    Historians


The Roman Republic    Oratory    Augustan Age     Silver Age   Novel Approach    Legacies