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Silver Latin is the name given to the 100 years or so after the Golden Age of Latin Literature.  

As its name implies, it’s often deemed slightly ‘less’ than the Golden Age.  The Republican climax of oratory in Cicero’s speeches and the unbeatable Virgil’s Aeneid, Ovid’s Metamorphoses and lyric poetry of the Golden Age were tough acts to follow.  

So the Romans didn’t try to follow them.  They admired them and then wrote totally different literature.  Some of it is truly remarkable.  The emperors who ruled in this time (including Nero) stifled freedom of speech ...


The philosopher Seneca (who had been Nero’s tutor), epic poet Lucan and satirical novelist, Petronius, all wrote during Nero’s reign.  Seneca’s writing ranged from letters to moral treatises and to the only 9 Roman tragedies that have survived; in all of them he focussed on coping with life and loss in a difficult time under the emperor Nero.  



Lucan wrote of anti-heroes, Pompey and Caesar in the civil war and it is far from the tale of destiny and grandeur that Virgil’s Aeneid presented.  




Petronius penned his Satyricon, a fictional satire on life and status in Rome and it includes the farcical Trimalchio’s dinner.   All three writers were close to the emperor at some time but all were forced to kill themselves after the conspiracy of Piso in AD 65.




The Flavian emperors were Vespasian (AD 69-79) and his son Titus (who had been ruling for only 2 months when Vesuvius erupted) and then his Vespasian’s younger son Domitian (AD 81-96).  They built the Colosseum.  During their era, writers focussed on being scholarly (and safe).  The only great literary names are;



Pliny the Elder who wrote his vast 39-book naturalis historia (Natural History) to record everything that was known at the time.  His nephew, Pliny the Younger, would write letters telling of his uncle’s obsession with work, and of how his uncle died while taking a fatal closer look at the erupting volcano.



Statius wrote great epics (Thebaid and he began but never finished his Achilleid) but his silvae poems are tender and personal.  His flattery of Domitian is gushing in the extreme - a necessity of the time as Domitian turned into a paranoid emperor whose last years of his reign were known as a time of terror.



Martial, born in Spain, came to Rome and wrote his short epigrams.  His sincerity and simplicity are refreshing although ‘selected works’ used to be/are often published as his bluntness of a rough and bawdy Rome were graphic and crude.



Quintilian was, like Martial, born in Spain – the empire had become a truly cosmopolitan place, although Rome remained the only real centre for a writer to be in.  Quintilian spent a 20 year career teaching rhetoric and speaking in the law courts before retiring to write his great work, the institutio oratoria, on the education of an orator.   Book 10 contains his comments on the wide reading a student of oratory should read, and it provides a vital insight into Rome’s views of Greek literature and of their own Roman literature.  His hope for his contemporary writers and the up and coming youth of his day contrasts with the downward turn of the mass of literature of the time.


Satire, as Quintilian wrote, was ‘wholly’ Roman – there were no Greek precedents.  Juvenal was the greatest satirist, providing vignettes of everyday life in the city of Rome.  Very much a ‘Victor Meldrew’ figure, complaining about anything and everything  (women, money …), his persona is fired by indignatio (indignation), complaining that things are so bad who could NOT write …  yet there he is in the heart of it all, as much a part of Roman life as the figures he satirises.


During the rules of Nerva (AD 96-98), Trajan (AD 98-117) and Hadrian (AD 117-138), the Empire was consolidated and well administered.  Pliny the Younger wrote letters, including a book of correspondence to the Emperor Trajan from his governorship in Bithynia.  These letters are very subservient to the emperor and ask for advice on virtually everything – including what to do with this new awkward cult of Christians who won’t sacrifice to the cult of the Emperor even though failure to do so is treason.  Trajan advises not to hunt them out but to give them all a chance to recant and to punish only if they persist.



Tacitus, relieved to be able to write history once Domitian had been killed (AD 96), wrote his Agricola, Germania and annals.  They are the  history of powerful people, their triumphs and ambitions, but he also give us much information about local customs in Britain and Germany, and insider knowledge at the corrupt and oppressive imperial court in Rome.



Plutarch wrote his Greek essays on ethics and topics such as ’curiosity’, ‘table talk’ and ‘bashfulness’ – so very abstract compared to Seneca’s Stoic practicality on how to mentally survive tough times.  Plutarch’s main work was his ‘Parallel Lives’, comparing and contrasting a great Greek with a corresponding great Roman.  This was biography, following lives, fortunes and deaths of great men.



Suetonius wrote more biography, but in Latin.  His lives of the Caesars gave insights into appearances and habits of the emperors and, combined with Tacitus’ Annals, would provide the meat for Robert Graves’ I, Claudius.




This Silver Age provided a wide range of impressive literature, even though free speech was largely suppressed and dangerous, and even though they were working in the shadow of the great works of the Golden Age.  A cosmopolitan mix stirred up the literary circles creating the Silver Age’s burst of quality literature but this was the swan song for great Roman writing; Classical Literature itself was from now on, strictly speaking, over.


However, after this, novels would be written and Christian writers would flourish and multiply …

The Muddy Archaeologist’s

Classical Civilisations Resources

The Romans

Classical Literature

Epic Poetry:  Homer & Hesiod     Drama      Philosophy    Historians


The Roman Republic    Oratory    Augustan Age     Silver Age   Novel Approach   Legacies



Silver Latin